viernes, 4 de febrero de 2011

The Nederlands

Done by Ángel Cuartero, Irene Rubio, César Alberca and Gloria Castillo


Julius Caesar found the low-lying Netherlands inhabited by Germanic tribes, the Nervii, Frisii, and Batavi. The Batavi on the Roman frontier did not submit to Rome's rule until 13 BC., and then only as allies.

The Franks controlled the region from the 4th to the 8th century, and it became part of Charlemagne's empire in the 8th and 9th centuries. The area later passed into the hands of Burgundy and the Austrian Hapsburgs and finally, in the 16th century, came under Spanish rule.
When Philip II of Spain suppressed political liberties and the growing Protestant movement in the Netherlands, a revolt led by William of Orange broke out in 1568. Under the Union of Utrecht (1579), the seven northern provinces became the United Provinces of the Netherlands. War between the United Provinces and Spain continued into the 17th century but in 1648 Spain finally recognized Dutch independence.
The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602, and by the end of the 17th century, Holland was one of the great sea and colonial powers of Europe.

The nation's independence was not completely established until after the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), when the country's rise as a commercial and maritime power began. In 1688, the English Parliament invited William of Orange, stadtholder, and his wife, Mary Stuart, to rule England as William III and Mary II. William then used the combined resources of England and the Netherlands to wage war on Louis XIV's France. In 1814, all the provinces of Holland and Belgium were merged into one kingdom, but in 1830 the southern provinces broke away to form the kingdom of Belgium. A liberal constitution was adopted by the Netherlands in 1848. The country remained neutral during World War I. Germany's invasion of the country beginning in 1940 resulted in the Royal Family fleeing to safety in England for the duration of the War. The occupation caused severe damage to the country and the post-war period was difficult. The Netherlands lost Indonesia and had to work at reorganizing the country's economy. It participated in the "economic miracle" that transformed Europe's economic structure. Stable and successful, the netherlands continues to play a key role in European affairs.


The Netherlands is in the north-western Europe. Netherlands borders the North Sea to the south with Belgium and East Germany. With its 41,526 km2, the Netherlands is a bit larger than Belgium, thee capital of the Netherland is Amsterdam.The Netherlands is a geographically low-lying country, with about 25% of its area and 21% of its population located below sea leve.
• The country is divided into two main parts by three large rivers, the Rhine(Rijn) and its main distributaries, the Waal and the Meuse (Maas). These rivers functioned as a natural barrier between earlier fiefdoms and hence created traditionally a cultural divide.
• Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of human intervention and natural disasters.
• The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change. Not only is the rising sea a problem, but also erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow.
• The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves. Most are owned by Staatsbosbeheer and Natuurmonumentenand include lakes, heathland, woods, dunes and other habitats.

• Parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch.

• The monarch: Beatrix

• Prime Minister: Mark Rutte


• The Netherlands has a very strong economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries. Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy. The Netherlands is one of the world's 10 leading exporting countries. Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector. Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical, goods and tourism.

• The Netherlands' location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe. Other important parts of the economy are international trade


In the year 1554, an Austrian ambassador, wanted to know the name of an unknown flower that was holding in the turban of a man. He asked him, the man, thought that he was referring to the turban, and said to him that it was called tülbent instead of lale. So this is how the tulipan’s name came to Europe. Years later, the Dutch became obsessed with tulipans, which made it the emblem of Holland.

Culture in Holland is very varied and diverse. We have to take in account the high number of museums, which made Holland, the country with the highest museum density in the world. Also these museums are full of important famous Dutch painters, such as van Gogh, Rembrandt and Veermer.

Things you got to know about Holland:

Their language:

Dutch is the national language of Holland; English is spoken by almost everyone. In addition, many Dutch people speak German and French. Like 21 million people speak Dutch and we have to add a Dutch dialect spoken in the north of France.

Their faiths:

40% of its population have no religious faiths, 30% is made up of Roman Catholics, 20% of protestant and 10% of others.

Their cheese:

In gastronomy, Holland is well known about his famous cheese.

Holland is considered one of the most liberal countries in the world and one of the most beautiful.


• Is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, with an urban population of 1,364,422 and a metropolitan population of 2,158,372. The city is in the province of North Holland in the west of the country.

• The city is the financial and cultural capital of the Netherlands.

• During the later part of the 16th century Amsterdam's Rederijkerskamer (Chamber of Rhetoric) organized contests between different Chambers in the reading of poetry and drama. In 1638, Amsterdam opened its first theatre. Ballet performances were given in this theatre as early as 1642.

• Amsterdam is famous for its vibrant and diverse nightlife. The two main nightlife areas are the Leidseplein and the Rembrandtplein.

• Amsterdam has many cafes. They range from large and modern to small and cozy. The typical Bruine Kroeg (brown cafe) breathe a more old fashioned atmosphere with dimmed lights, candles, and somewhat older clientele. Most cafes have terraces in summertime. A common sight on the Leidseplein during summer is a square full of terraces packed with people drinking beer or wine.

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